Every handmade rug has something that a machine made could never have, a soul.


All the rugs start as raw wool, natural silk or hemp. The main material is tibetan wool that comes from sheeps that graze in the highlands of Tibet. Because the sheeps roam freely in the wild, the wool they produce is strong and rich in lanolin content, which makes Tibetan wool one of the finest natural fibers in the world.


Hand carding is a vital step in the production process because it transforms the raw wool into yarn that is ready to be spun. The process of hand carding involves de-tangling the raw wool by teasing it back and forth between two paddles. These paddles have small metal spikes on one side, which act as a brush, working through the tangles to filter out any thorns or grasses, which may have become attached from before the sheep were sheared.


The hand carded wool is fed into a spinning wheel where it is spun and twisted into one long strand of yarn. Traditionally, hand-spinning was done using spindles. Nowadays, spindles have been replaced by Charkhas: hand-run spinning wheels.


The dye-master has the important responsability of getting the colors right. The yarn is placed into a large pot filled with boiling water with the specific amount of dye added for the specific colour. The yarn is constantly turned on a wheel to ensure that the colour has effectively permeated the wool and is also consistent however a natural abrash will occur due to this process. Once the dyeing process is complete, the yarn is then left to dry naturally in the sun.


The weaving technique is a complex and time-consuming activity, taking a skilled weaver about one day to make 10,000 knots. One square meter of a rug contains no less than 155 000 knots.
All rugs are hand knotted on looms. A loom is normally constructed of a metal frame that is strung with thin cotton threads to create a tension for the warp threads to be woven through it. The loom threads are the structure of the carpet.


The rugs are washed with fresh water
using wooden scrapers, soft brushes and
combs to remove excess lanolin and to
bring up the woolen piles’ inherent luster.
Gentle soaps are used to enhance the
softness, sheen and vibrancy of the colors.


Once washed, the rug is stretched out by being stitched onto a metal frame, as the washing process causes shrinkage and this usually takes 3 to 5 days.


Once stretched and dried the rug is laid flat on the floor for its final special touch by hand – shearing, trimming and binding for definition and clarity.